101 AIZOACEAE 1
Dennis I Morris †, Marco F Duretto 2
Annual or perennial, monoecious herbs or, less often, shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate in false whorls, exstipulate or more rarely stipulate, sometimes reduced to scales, often succulent or subsucculent, flat, terete or triquetrous, glabrous, papillose or rarely pubescent or lepidote,. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, flowers solitary or in loose cymes, sessile or pedicellate, bracteate or ebracteate. Flowers usually actinomorphic, bisexual or rarely unisexual and the plant monecious. Sepals (3–)5–8, herbaceous, persistent, often succulent, equal or unequal. Petals 0. Staminodes 0-many, often petaloid and showy in 1–6 whorls (by many authors referred to as petals). Fertile stamens (1–)4–many, free or connate at the base, anthers small. Gynoecium of 2–5(-many) carpels united in a compound ovary, superior, half-inferior or inferior, with as many loculi as carpels; styles as many as loculi; ovules 1-many per locule; placentation usually axile but sometimes parietal or basal. Fruit usually a capsule, dehiscing loculicidally, septicidally, or circumscissile or indehiscent or a berry. Seed with a curved embryo enveloping a mealy endosperm.
A family of about 120 genera and 2000–2500 species. Some 100 of the genera earlier considered as constituting the large genus Mesembryanthemum (see Klak et al. 2007). The primary centres of diversity are South Africa and the Mediterranean region. In Australia there are 19 genera and about 80 species, of which 54 species in 8 genera are native. In Tasmania there are 6 genera and 10 species, of which 3 genera and 6 species are introduced. Aizoaceae are placed in the Caryophyllales near Phytolaccaceae (Americas, Africa, Asia), Sarcobataceae (SW North America) and Nyctaginaceae (tropical & warm temperate regions) (see Stevens 2007 & references cited therein).
Synonymy: Galeniaceae, Mesembryanthaceae, Tetragoniaceae.
Key references: Prescott & Venning (1984); Walsh (1996).
External resources: accepted names with synonymy & distribution in Australia (APC); author & publication abbreviations (IPNI); mapping (AVH, NVA); nomenclature (APNI, IPNI).
|1.||Flowers without petaloid staminodes||2|
|1:||Flowers with petaloid staminodes||4|
|2.||Leaves opposite; fruit a circumscissile capsule||Zaleya +|
|2:||Leaves alternate or clustered; fruit indehiscent or opening by slits or valves||3|
|3.||Fruit indehiscent||5 Tetragonia|
|3:||Fruit dehiscent||6 Galenia|
|4.||Leaves flat||1 Mesembryanthemum|
|4:||Leaves triquetrous or semiterete||5|
|5.||Fruit fleshy when mature, indehiscent||2 Carpobrotus|
|5:||Fruit a capsule, dry when mature, dehiscent||6|
|6.||Plant erect or trailing, not rooting at nodes||Drosanthemum ++|
|6:||Plant prostrate, rooting at nodes||7|
|7.||Stems erect or ascending; leaves 0.9–1.4 cm long; flowers yellow||3 Lampranthus|
|7:||Stems prostrate; leaves 2–5 cm long; flowers purple||4 Disphyma|
+ Zaleya galericulata (Melville) H.Eichler (Hogweed) has been cited as naturalised in Tasmania by Walsh (1996) and Richardson et al. (2011). The species is native to other states of Australia (see also Prescott & Venning 1984). There are no herbarium specimens from Tasmania either at the Tasmania Herbarium, or in other herbaria available in AVH. We consider this species to have been attributed to Tasmania in error, and the genus is not treated further here. See Richardson et al. (2006, 2011) for a description and photograph.
++ Drosanthemum candens (Haw.) Schwantes (Rodondo Creeper; from South Africa) is planted in seaside areas. It has become established in Western Australia, and is an occasional garden escape in South Australia and Victoria (see Prescott & Venning 1984; Walsh 1996). A single collection of this species was made in 2000 from the Sorrell Causeway. The species is not treated further here. See Richardson et al. (2006) for a description and photograph.
1 * MESEMBRYANTHEMUM
Mesembryanthemum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 480 (1753).
Synonymy: Psilocaulon N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 78: 433 (1925). Gasoul Adans., Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 243 (1763). Cryophytum N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 78: 412 (1925). Aptenia N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 78: 412 (1925). Litocarpus L.Bolus, Fl. Pl. South Africa 7: 261 (1927).
Annual or biennial herbs, succulent, sometimes prostrate or rambling; stems and branches angled or terete, conspicuously papillose, the papillae vesicular, glistening. Leaves fleshy, flat or semiterete, opposite, sometimes becoming alternate on flowering branches, sessile or petiolate. Flowers solitary, axillary, sessile or shortly pedicellate. Calyx tubular, 4–5-lobed, 3 smaller lobes with membranous margins or alternating larger and smaller. Petaloid staminodes numerous, white, mauve to reddish; fertile stamens numerous. Ovary inferior or half-inferior, 5-locular, placentation axile; styles 5, free. Fruit a hygroscopic capsule, the valves winged. Seeds numerous, compressed, minutely tuberculate.
A genus of about 100 species distributed along the coasts of western North America, southern Europe, Africa and the Middle East. 3 species naturalised in Australia. Several species are grown as ornamentals. Klak et al. (2007) presented a cladistic analysis of the Mesembryanthemoideae and showed that Mesembryanthemum was not a natural group if the other members of the tribe were not included in it and so reduced 11 genera, including Aptenia and Psilocaulon (both represented in Australia by naturalised species), to synonymy.
|1.||Petaloid staminoides white, sometimes with pink tips; sepals 5; leaves alternate on flowering branches||1 M. crystallinum|
|1:||Petaloid staminoides purple; sepals 4; leaves opposite throughout||2 M. cordifolium|
1 * Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 480 (1753)
Ice-plant, Common Ice-plant
Cryophytum crystallinum (L.) N.E.Br. in E.P.Phillips, Gen. S. Afr. Fl. Pl.: 245 (1926); Gasoul crystallinum (L.) Rothm., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 15(3): 413 (1941).
Illustrations: Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 22, fig. 5e-g (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 104, fig. 22f (1996); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 196 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 190 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 89 (2006).
Prostrate annual or biennial forming patches to 1 m diam.; stems and branches terete. Leaves to 15 cm long, upper leaves much shorter; petiole ± stem-clasping; lamina obovate or spathulate, acute, margins undulate, vesicles on adaxial surface smaller than those on the abaxial surface or on stems and branches. Calyx lobes tinged red, unequal; the three outer lobes fleshy, papillose abaxially rounded, ending in a fleshy point; the two inner lobes membranous with a line of papillae extending down the thicker mid-region and a fleshy point-arising below the apex. Petaloid staminodes white, pink-tipped, c. 12 mm long, fused below; fertile stamens shorter than the staminodes, arising from the staminodal tube. Ovary flat at the top, 5-ridged. Flowering Sep.–Feb.; fruiting Dec.–May.
Tas, (FUR, TSE); also naturalised in WA, SA, NSW, Vic.; native of South Africa. Found growing on coastal sands and in rock crevices, often associated with sea-bird nesting sites, eg. on Iron Pot (Derwent Estuary) and the islands of Bass Strait.
2 * Mesembryanthemum cordifolium L.f., Suppl. Pl. 260 (1782)
Litocarpus cordifolius (L.f.) L.Bolus, Fl. Pl. South Africa 7: 261 (1927); Aptenia cordifolia (L.f.) Schwantes, Gartenflora 77: 69 (1928).
Illustrations (as A. cordifolia): Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 22, fig. 5c-d (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 104, fig. 22d-e (1996); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 196 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 87 (2006).
Scrambling or spreading and mat-forming perennial; stems 30–60 cm long, minutely papillose. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, petiolate, minutely papillose; lamina ovate-cordate, 8–15(–25) mm long. Flowers solitary, axillary, shortly pedicellate. Calyx densely papillose, 4-lobed, of 2 unequal pairs, the larger pair 8–12 mm long, obovate, narrowing to the base, the smaller pair c. 2.5 mm long, rounded, with a fleshy linear protuberance c. 4 mm long arising from about the middle of the abaxial surface. Petaloid staminodes purple, 4–8 mm long, united at the base; stamens numerous, 2–4 mm long, anthers pale yellow. Capsule obconical, 9–12 mm long, 4-locular. Seeds lenticular, tuberculate. Flowering & fruiting? Nov.-May (Jul.).
Tas. (FUR, TSE); also naturalised in SA, Qld, NSW, Vic.; native in South Africa. Doubtfully naturalised and known from a few widely spaced collections from disturbed areas near roadsides, tip sites etc, in the Hobart and Scamander areas as well as from Flinders Island.
Carpobrotus N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 78: 433 (1925).
Succulent creeping perennials; the stems rooting at the nodes. Leaves acutely triquetrous, thick and fleshy, opposite, connate. Flowers large, showy, solitary, terminal at the ends of short axillary branches. Calyx 5-lobed, the lobes unequal, 2 larger and opposite, 3 smaller with expanded membranous margins. Petaloid staminodes numerous, linear, free, in one or more whorls; fertile stamens numerous. Ovary inferior 6–14(–16?)-locular, placentation parietal; stigmas as many as locules, short subulate. Fruit indehiscent, fleshy, often edible. Seeds numerous, obovoid, elliptical or oblong, slightly compressed laterally, mucilaginous on long funicles.
A genus of about 25 species, mainly South African but also in North America, Chile and Australia; in Australia there are 7 native and 4 introduced species.
|1.||Petaloid staminodes yellow, fading to pink||3 C. edulis|
|1:||Petaloid staminodes purple, paler or white at the base||2|
|2.||Leaves deeper than wide at the mid-point; flowers 3.5–5.5 cm diam.; petaloid staminodes white at the base||1 C. rossii|
|2:||Leaves ± as deep as wide at the mid-point; flowers 3.5–8.0 cm diam.; petaloid staminodes paler but never white at the base||2 C. aequilaterus|
1 Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, Gartenflora 77: 68 (1928)
Karkalla, Native Pigface, Pigface
Mesembryanthemum rossii Haw., Revis. Pl. Succ.: 120 (1821).
Illustrations: Curtis & Morris, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 2: 238, fig. 64 (1963); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 113, fig. 23g-h (1996); Cameron, A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 3rd edn, 101, pl. 248 (2000); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 1, fig. 2 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 129 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 21 (2002); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 21 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 14 (2004); Simmons et al., A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 4th edn, 158 (2008).
Fleshy perennial herb; stems prostrate, to 1 m long. Leaves fleshy, linear, 3–7 cm long, triquetrous, usually deeper than wide at the mid-point, keel smooth or crenulate in the distal portion. Flowers 3.5–5.5 cm diam., solitary, terminal at the ends of short lateral branches, pedicellate or subsessile within the uppermost pair of leaves. Calyx lobes fleshy, the 2 longer ones 1.0–1.5(–2.5) cm long, triquetrous, the line of the keel decurrent down the receptacle and pedicel, the 3 smaller lobes with wide membranous margins, these often brown-dotted. Petaloid staminodes purple, white at the base; fertile stamens white or pale cream, numerous, in 3–4 whorls, filaments shorter than the staminodes, with a tuft of clavate papillae at the base; anthers versatile. Carpels 6–10; ovary 6–10-locular, ovules numerous on long funicles; stigmas subulate, shorter than the stamens. Fruit green or reddish, cylindrical-ovoid, c. 2.5 cm long. Flowering Jul.–Feb.; fruitin Nov.–Mar.
Tas. (FUR, KIN, TSE, TSR, TWE); also WA, SA, Vic. Widespread in near coastal areas in sandy and rocky areas.
2 * Carpobrotus aequilaterus (Haw.) N.E.Br., J. Bot. 66: 324 (1928)
Pigface, Angled Pigface, Angular Pigface
Mesembryanthemum aequilaterum Haw., Observ. Mesembryanthemum Pt 1: 390, 477 (1794); M. edule var. aequilaterum (Haw.) Moss, Cambr. Brit. Fl. 2: 151 (1914). Mesembryanthemum aequilaterale Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 2(2): 1051 (1799), nom. illeg., non Haw. (1794); Carpobrotus aequilateralis (Willd.) J.Black, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 56: 40 (1932), nom. illeg. Mesembryanthemum aequilaterale var. decagynum Haw. ex DC., Prodr. (DC.) 3: 429 (1828), nom. illeg. Mesembryanthemum aequilaterale Benth., Fl. Austral. 3: 324 (1867), orth. var. Carpobrotus disparilis N.E.Br., J. Bot. 66: 324 (1928).
Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 113, fig. 23c-e (1996); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 198 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 87 (2006).
Fleshy, prostrate perennial herb; stems stout, to 2 m long. Leaves fleshy, linear, 3–9 cm long, triquetrous, usually as deep as long at the mid-point, keel crenulate throughout or at the distal end only. Flowers 3.5–8.0 cm diam., solitary, terminal and in the upper axils of short lateral branches; pedicels 5–40 mm long. Longer calyx lobes to 5 cm long. Petaloid staminodes purple, paler at the base but not white; fertile stamens numerous, in 4–6 whorls. Styles 6–14-locular, turbinate, somewhat compressed laterally. Fruit purple, obovoid to ellipsoid, 15–30 mm long. Flowering Oct.–Jan.; fruiting ?
Tas. (TSE); also naturalised in WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic.; native to Chile. Occasional in populated areas as a garden discard. Known from few collections around Hobart only.
3 * Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br., Gen. S. Afr. Fl. Pl.: 249 (1926) subsp. edulis
Mesembryanthemum edule L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1060 (1759); Carpobrotus edulis (L.) L.Bolus, Fl. Pl. South Africa 7: Subt. 247 (1927), nom. illeg., non N.E.Br. (1926).
Illustrations: Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 35, fig. 6c-d (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 113, fig. 23a-b (1996); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 198 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 88 (2006).
Fleshy prostrate perennial herb; stems stout, to 2 m long. Leaves fleshy, linear, 4–10 cm long, triquetrous, bright green, angles often tinged red, surfaces distinctly concave, keel crenulate throughout or in the distal portion only. Flowers 7–9 cm diam.; pedicles 10–20 mm long. Petaloid staminodes yellow, fading to pink; fertile stamens numerous in 6–7 whorls; anthers golden-yellow. Ovary turbinate; styles 8–10. Fruit green, becoming yellowish-red, subglobose, c. 3 cm long. Flowering & fruiting? Oct.–Jan.
Tas. (FUR, TSE, TWE); also naturalised in WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic.; native to South Africa. Occasional as a garden discard. A number of subspecies are recognised in Europe.
3 * LAMPRANTHUS
Lampranthus N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 87: 211 (1930).
Glabrous perennials or subshrubs, erect, spreading or prostrate; stems and branches ± compressed or winged. Leaves opposite, succulent, shortly connate, laterally compressed, keels acute. Flowers solitary or in cymes, usually pedicellate. Sepals 5, fleshy, subequal, 2 triangular-lanceolate, 3 ± ovate with broad membranous margins. Petaloid staminodes numerous, white, yellow or purple; stamens numerous. Ovary inferior, 5-locular, placentation parietal; styles 5. Fruit a dry capsule, hydroscopic, dehiscing loculicidally, the valves divergent at maturity, loculi roofed by out-growths from the locular septa; seeds many, pyriform.
A genus of about 180 species, endemic in South Africa; 4 species introduced to Australia.
1 * Lampranthus glaucus (L.) N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. ser. 3 87: 212 (1930)
Mesembryanthemum glaucum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 486 (1743).
Illustration: Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 35, fig. 6g (1984).
Erect perennial herb; stems 15–20(–30) cm high, somewhat woody at the base; branches terete, grey, branchlets reddish, ± compressed, the angles narrowly winged. Leaves 9–15 mm long, 2–3 mm wide, dark green or glaucous, prominently gland-dotted, the glads at the margins giving the leaf edges a denticulate appearance. Flowers solitary, yellow, 4–5 cm diam. Sepals 5–7 mm long, fleshy. Petaloid staminodes golden yellow, 20–25 mm long; anthers sulphur-yellow. Capsule c. 1 cm diam. Seeds orange-brown, rugulose. Flowering Sep.–Nov.; fruiting ?.
Tas. (FUR); also naturalised in WA, SA; native to South Africa. Known only from rocks around the lighthouse at Devonport.
Disphyma N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 78: 433 (1925).
Prostrate succulent perennials rooting at the nodes and forming dense mats. Leaves opposite, connate, clustered in small rosettes on short lateral branches, weakly triquetrous or subterete, claviform, obtuse or acute. Flowers solitary, terminal on the lateral branches, pedicellate. Calyx-lobes 5, unequal, 2 leaf-like, ± triquetrous, 3 with broad membranous margins. Petaloid staminodes numerous, pink or purple, white at the base; stamens numerous, filaments hairy at the base; anthers versatile. Ovary inferior, 5-locular, placentation parietal; stigmas 5, plumose. Fruit a hydroscopic capsule, dehiscing by 5 keeled valves with membranous wings, the valves reflexing on opening; loculi roofed by extension of the locular septa; placentas expanded at the apex to form a bifid tubercle.
A genus considered monotypic here and found in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia. Lang et al. (2006) recognise three species for the genus.
1 Disphyma crassifolium (L.) L.Bolus, Fl. Pl. South Africa, 7: t. 276 (1927) subsp. clavellatum (Haw.) Chinnock, Fl. S. Austral. (ed 4) 1: 194 (1986)
Rounded Noon-flower, Round-leaved Pigface, Pigface
Mesembryanthemum crassifolium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 484 (1753), p.p. Mesembryanthemum clavellatum Haw., Misc. Nat. 79 (1803); Disphyma clavellatum (Haw.) Chinn., New Zealand J. Bot. 14: 78 (1976). Mesembryanthemum australe Aiton, Hort. Kew. (W. Aiton) 2: 187 (1789); Disphyma australe (Aiton) N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 3 87: 14 (1930).
Illustrations (often as D. crassifolium): Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 35, fig. 6e-f (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 104, fig. 22j (1996); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 195 (2000); Cameron, A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 3rd edn, 101, pl. 248 (2000); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 1, fig. 3 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 150 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 21 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 14 (2004); Simmons et al., A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 4th edn, 161 (2008).
A fleshy perennial herb with stout prostrate stems to 1 m long rooting at some of the nodes. Leaves fleshy, linear and terete or trigonous, opposite but apparently clustered because of the development of the leaves on very short axillary branches, 2–5 cm long, apex usually blunt, base stem-clasping, glabrous, often reddish in colour at least at the tip. Flowers showy, 3–4 cm diam., solitary and terminal; pedicel arising between the 2 leaves of a very short axillary flowering branch, usually longer than the leaves and thicker towards the top, below the flower; receptacle-tube turbinate, c. 5 mm long. Sepals fleshy, unequal, the 2 longer ones about as long as the tube, the 3 shorter ones with membranous wings. Petaloid staminodes magenta or the proximal third almost white, numerous, narrow-linear, 15–20 mm long; stamens numerous, in several rows, white, filaments shorter than the petaloid staminodes and with a tuft of slender hairs at the base; anthers versatile. Stigmas 5, ending in filiform appendages. Fruit a capsule; valves prominent, rounded, at first red and succulent, later dry and hard, when turned back, the valves each with 2 horny longitudinal ridges arising on either side of a septum and with membranous marginal wings. Flowering Oct.–Jan. (Apr.); fruiting Dec.–Aug.
Tas. (FUR, KIN, TSE, TWE); also WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic, New Zealand. Found in all coastal regions on sand, rocky shores and outcrops, margins of lagoons, etc. The typical subspecies is endemic to South Africa. Disphyma australe is treated as a distinct species with two subspecies endemic to New Zealand by Lang et al. (2006).
Tetragonia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 480 (1753).
Synonymy: Demidovia Pallas, Enum. Hort. Demidof 150 (1781). Tetragonella Miq., Pl. Preiss. 1(2): 245 (1845).
Annual or perennial herbs or undershrubs, sprawling or climbing. Leaves flat, entire, alternate, exstipulate, usually somewhat succulent, surfaces covered in vesicular papillae. Flower axillary in clusters of 1–5 or terminal and solitary, sessile or pedicellate, ebracteate, bisexual or functionally unisexual. Calyx tube adnate to the ovary, lobes (3)4–5, adaxial surface coloured. Stamens 4-many, inserted on the calyx-tube, alternating with the lobes or scattered. Carpels joined; ovary inferior or half-inferior, 2–8-locular, each locule with one pendulous ovule; stigmas free, as many as the loculi. Fruit indehiscent, dry or succulent, ridged, winged or papillose, endocarp bony.
A genus of about 50 species; chiefly in the Southern Hemisphere centred in South Africa but also in South America, Australasia and Polynesia. In Australia there are 7 to 9 species (5 native). Some authors placed the genus in its own family, the Tetragoniaceae.
|1.||Flowers sessile or subsessile; fruit green, becoming hard, the angles of the ovary extended as hard erect horns||1 T. tetragonoides|
|1:||Flowers on filiform pedicels 1.0–2.5 cm long; fruits red or blackish, globose, succulent||2 T. implexicoma|
1 Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze, Revis Gen. Pl. 1: 264 (1891)
New Zealand Spinach
Demidovia tetragonoides Pall., Enum. Hort. Demidof: 151 (1781); Tetragonia expansa Murray, Commentatio de Arbuto … Gottingae 6: 13 (1783), nom. illeg., based on D. tetragonoides. Tetragonia inermis F.Muell., Linnaea 25: 384 (1853).
Illustrations: Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 43, fig. 11f (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 117, fig. 24d (1996); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 194; 213, pl. 14 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 238 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 22 (2002); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 21 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 15 (2004); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 91 (2006).
Annual or perennial herb, decumbent or ascending; stems to 1 m long. Leaves broadly hastate, rhomboid or lanceolate; petiole 10–45 mm long, papillose, decurrent; blade 1–8(–10?) cm long, 0.5–5.0 cm wide, dark green above, paler below with larger papillae. Flowers axillary, solitary or rarely 2 together, 8–10 mm diam.; pedicels to 5 mm long. Calyx lobes 4–5, 1 or 2 of them ovate-semiorbicular, larger than the rest, the smaller lobes ovate-triangular to lanceolate, obtuse or acute; adaxial surface yellowish, minutely papillose; abaxial surface green, papillose. Stamens 8–16, in groups alternating with the calyx lobes. Stigmas 3–8(–10?) in 2 groups, equal in number to the loculi. Fruit indehiscent, at first green, becoming dry and bony, to 13 mm long and 12 mm wide, globular or turbinate variously ridged at the summit; ridges produced into short equal or unequal horns. Seeds in 2 rows, c. 2.5 mm long, pyriform. Flowering & fruiting throughout year.
Tas. (TSE, FUR); also in WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic., New Zealand; naturalised in Europe and Africa. Found on coastal sands and rocks in the eastern part of the state. This species can become weedy.
2 Tetragonia implexicoma (Miq.) Hook.f., Bot. Antarct. Voy. III. (Fl. Tasman.) 1: 148 (1856)
Ice-plant, Bower Spinach
Tetragonella implexicoma Miq., Pl. Preiss. 2(2–3): 235 (1848). Tetragonella amplexicoma Miq. Pl. Preiss. 1(2): 246 (1845). Trianthema maidenii S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 45: 207 (1920). Tetragonia trigyna Banks & Sol. Ex Hook.f., Handb. N. Zeal. Fl. 1: 84 (1864).
Illustrations: Curtis & Morris, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 2: 241, fig. 65 (1963); Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 43, fig. 11e (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 117, fig. 24a-b (1996); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 2, fig. 4 (2000); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 194 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 236 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 21 (2002); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 21 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 15 (2004).
Prostrate, scrambling or climbing undershrub; younger parts of the plant with a mixed indumentum of papillae and soft spreading hairs; branches to 2 m long; short branchlets produced in most leaf axils. Leaves scattered or clustered; petiole to 1.5 cm long; lamina 1–5 cm long, 0.6–4.5 mm wide, ovate, obovate, rhomboid, lanceolate or oblanceolate, densely papillose. Flowers on long slender pedicels, solitary or 2(3) together in the axils of young leaves. Perianth segments 4, oblong-lanceolate, to 3.5 mm long, shrinking as the fruit matures, adaxial surface yellow, abaxial surface variously hairy-papillose. Stamens 12–25, in groups of 3–5, alternating with the perianth lobes. Ovary half-inferior, the free summit domed; stigmas 2(3), equal in number to the loculi of the ovary. Fruit orange-red to blackish, globular, succulent, 5–8 mm long. Flowering & fruiting throughout year.
Tas.(FUR, KIN, TNS, TSE, TSR, TWE); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic., New Zealand. Found on all coasts and estuaries, sandy or rocky shores, dunes, cliffs, among rocks.
6 * GALENIA
Galenia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 359 (1753).
Perennial herbs or undershrubs, galabours, hairy or papillose. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire; stipules 0 or small and caducous. Flowers bisexual, small, sessile, solitary and axillary or sometimes in terminal cymes. Calyx of (3)4–5 segments, united at the base in a short tube, the segments spreading, abaxial surface hairy. Petals 0. Stamens 8–10, in pairs alternating with the calyx lobes. Ovary superior, (1)2–5-locular, each locule with a solitary ovule suspended from an axile apical funicle. Fruit a capsule, compressed or angular, dehiscing loculicidally. Seeds compressed, reniform to orbicular.
A genus of about 30 species, native to South Africa; 2 species introduced to Australia.
1 * Galenia pubescens (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Druce, Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 1916: 624 (1917) var. pubescens
Aizoon pubescens Eckl. & Zeyh, Enum. Pl. Afric. Austral. 3: 326 (1837). Galenia secunda sensu W.M.Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 2: 241 (1963), non (L.f.) Sond. (1862).
Illustrations: Prescott & Venning, Fl. Australia 4: 43, fig. 11g-h (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 117, fig. 24f-g (1996); Jacobs & Highet, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 189 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 88 (2006).
Greyish undershrub, stems to 1 m long, younger parts and leaves with an indumentum of appressed silvery, hairlike peltate scales; stems prostrate or ascending, woody at the base. Leaves 5–20 mm long, grey-green, alternate, obovate-spathulate, obtuse, rather thick. Flowers 5–6 mm diam., sessile, axillary, mostly on short lateral branches. Perianth lobes yellowish or pinkish, 5, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface hairy; shortly hooded at the tips. Stamens 10. Stigmas 5. Capsule angular, truncate, the valves inflated at the tip. Seeds c. 1–2 mm long, reniform, black, tuberculate. Flowering Oct-Apr.
Tas, (FUR, TSE); also naturalised in WA, NT, SA, NSW, Vic.; native in South Africa. Known from two collections: one in 1947 from a roadside near Whitemark, Flinders Island, and another made in 2007 from the Hobart Show Grounds.
APC (Australian Plant Census) https://biodiversity.org.au/nsl/services/apc
APNI (Australian Plant Name Index) https://biodiversity.org.au/nsl/services/apni
AVH (Australia’s Virtual Herbarium) (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria) http://avh.chah.org.au/
IPNI (International Plant Name Index) http://www.ipni.org
Klak C, Bruyns PV, Hedderson TAJ (2007) A phylogeny and new classification for Mesembryanthemoideae (Aizoaceae). Taxon 56 737–756.
Lang PJ de, Sawyer JWD, Rolfe JR (2006) New Zealand Indigenous Vascular Plant Checklist. 94 pp. (New Zealand Plant Conservation Network: Wellington).
NVA (Natural Values Atlas) (Department of Primary Industries and Water: Hobart) https://www.naturalvaluesatlas.tas.gov.au/
Prescott A, Venning J (1984) Aizoaceae. Flora of Australia 4 19–62.
Richardson FJ, Richardson RG, Shepherd RCH (2006) Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia: an Identification Guide for Australia. (RG & FJ Richardson: Meredith, Victoria)
Richardson FJ, Richardson RG, Shepherd RCH (2011) Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia: an Identification Guide for Australia, Ed. 2. (RG & FJ Richardson: Meredith, Victoria)
Stevens PF (2007) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb
Walsh NG (1996) Aizoaceae. Flora of Victoria 3 105–119.
NOTE: Web addresses can and do change: a list of current web addresses is maintained in the web version of this treatment on the Flora of Tasmania Online website at https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/
This work can be cited as: Morris DI & Duretto MF (2009). Aizoaceae, version 2019:1. In MF de Salas (Ed.) Flora of Tasmania Online. 9 pp. (Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery: Hobart). https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/vascular-families/aizoaceae/ (accessed ). ↩︎
Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery, PO Box 5058, UTAS LPO, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005, Australia. ↩︎