69 CELASTRACEAE 1
Miguel F de Salas 2
Perennial (rarely annual) monoecious or dioecious (not in Tasmania), glabrous or rarely pubescent (not in Tasmania) herbs, shrubs, trees or climbers. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, sometimes reduced or absent, occasionally deciduous; stipules minute, caducous or absent (not in Tasmania). Inflorescence of terminal or axillary racemes or cymes, occasionally a solitary flower; bracts usually present. Flowers small, actinomorphic (but sometimes with unequal stamens), bisexual or sometimes unisexual, 4–5-merous. Calyx persistent, sepals imbricate or valvate, free or sometimes joined. Petals imbricate, rarely convolute, or valvate, or absent. Stamens free, alternate with the petals, in 1–2 whorls, staminodes sometimes present; anthers 2-locular, dehiscing longitudinally. Gynoecium of 2–5 superior carpels, joined to form a multilocular ovary, with as many locules as carpels; style distinct; stigma with as many lobes as carpels or capitate. Fruit a capsule, schizocarp, samara, drupe or berry. Seeds with substantial endosperm and often a well-developed aril.
A family of 94 genera and approximately 1,400 species (Stevens 2001), with a cosmopolitan distribution but chiefly in tropical regions. In Australia, there are 20 genera (6 endemic) and approximately 80 species. Three genera (Euonymus L. and Maytenus Molina are introduced, and Stackhousia Sm. is native) and 8 species (3 introduced, none endemic) grow in Tasmania. Celastraceae are placed in the Celastrales with the Lepidobotryaceae (equatorial Africa and S. America). Celastraceae contains a few genera that have been grown as ornamental plants, including Celastrus, Euonymus and Maytenus. The Celastraceae as currently circumscribed also includes those genera previously within the family Stackhousiaceae.
Synonymy: Euonymaceae, Stackhousiaceae.
Key references: Barker (1984); Jessup (1984), Curtis (1975).
External resources: author & publication abbreviations (IPNI); mapping (AVH, NVA); nomenclature (APNI, IPNI)
|1.||Flowers with petals free and widely separated; leaf margin toothed||2|
|1:||Flowers with petals fused into a tube; leaf margin entire||3 Stackhousia|
|2.||Leaves opposite, broad-lanceolate to obovate, ≥ 5 cm long; inflorescence cymose; petals 4||1 Euonymus|
|2:||Leaves alternate, lanceolate, ≤ 4 cm long; inflorescence fasciculate or of single flowers; petals 5||2 Maytenus|
1 * EUONYMUS
Euonymus L., Sp. Pl.: 197 (1753).
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs to small trees. Leaves usually opposite or rarely alternate (not in Tasmania), petiolate; lamina chartaceous or coriaceous; margin serrulate or entire (not in Tasmania). Inflorescences axillary, cymose. Flowers bisexual, bracteate, pedicellate with pedicels articulate, hypogynous. Sepals 4 or 5 (not in Tasmania), free, imbricate in bud. Petals 4 or 5 (not in Tasmania), free, imbricate, spreading. Hypogynous disc angular or rounded or lobed. Stamens as many as, and alternating with the petals, all equal; anthers opening centrally or laterally. Carpels 4 or 5 (not in Tasmania), fused; ovary at least partially inserted in disk; ovules 1–2 per loculus, attached to inner angle near the base or pendulous, in two rows; style 1; stigma 1. Fruit a capsule, coriaceous, loculicidally dehiscent, columella sometimes present. Seeds 1–several per locule, with well-developed aril.
A genus of approximately 130 species, of which 4 are found in Australia (2 endemic, 2 naturalised). Species of Euonymus are also found in Asia, North America, Madagascar and Europe, though their centre of diversity is in east Asia.
|1.||Plants deciduous; leaf chartaceous, apex narrowly acute to acuminate; petals narrowly oblong; fruits distinctly 3–4-lobed||1 E. europaeus|
|1:||Plants evergreen; leaf coriaceous, apex broadly acute to rounded; petals broadly elliptic to almost orbicular; fruits spherical||2 E. japonicus|
1 * Euonymus europaeus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 197 (1753)
Illustrations: Gleason, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (Britton & Brown), ed. 3, 2: 503 (1968). Polunin, Flowers of Europe – a Field Guide: Pl. 71, Fig. 718 (1969). Martin, The Concise British Flora in Colour: Pl. 20 (1974). Polunin & Everard, Trees and Bushes of Europe: 130 (1976). Webb, Fl. New Zealand 4:514 (1988). Spencer, Horticultural Flora of South-Eastern Australia 2: 445 (2002).
Deciduous glabrous shrubs to 6 m tall. Terminal branches quadrangular, green. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules minute, filiform, laciniate, caducous; petiole 6–12 mm long; lamina 3–10 cm long, slightly discolorous, darker green above, often turning red in autumn, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, chartaceous; base cuneate; margin crenate-serrulate; apex narrowly acute or acuminate. Inflorescence axillary, cymose, repeatedly dichotomously branched, 2–15 flowered; peduncles 5–25 mm long; bracts 2 mm long, suborbicular, caducous with a fimbriate margin and an acute and abruptly darker apex; pedicels 4–10 mm long. Flowers bisexual, 8–10 mm diameter. Sepals 4, broadly ovate, with a rounded to emarginate apex. Petals 4, green, oblong, widely separated. Stamens 4, alternating with the petals. Carpels 4, fused together; style inserted centrally, short, narrowly conical; stigma simple. Fruit a 4-lobed capsule, bright pink to red, up to 1 cm wide before dehiscense. Seed completely enclosed in a bright orange aril. Flowering Nov.–Dec.; fruiting Apr.–May.
Tas. (TNM – naturalised); also naturalised in SA, Vic.; native to Europe and western Asia; also naturalised in New Zealand and North America. In Tasmania, it has been recorded as naturalised in the Launceston area, at the Cataract Gorge and Trevallyn Nature Recreation Area. Introduced to Tasmania as an ornamental shrub grown for its autumn foliage and brightly coloured autumn fruit.
2 * Euonymus japonicus Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 3: 208 (1780)
Illustrations: Webb, Fl. New Zealand 4:514 (1988). Spencer, Horticultural Flora of South-Eastern Australia 2: 445 (2002).
Evergreen glabrous shrubs to 6 m tall. Terminal branches weakly angled, green. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules tiny, laciniate, caducous; petiole 5–15 mm long; lamina 3–7 cm long, discolorous, shiny dark green above, pale matt green below, obovate to elliptical, coriaceous; base cuneate; margin crenate; apex broadly acute or rounded. Inflorescence axillary, sometimes terminal, cymose, dichotomously branched, 5–many-flowered; peduncles 20–35 mm long; bracts 1.5–3.0 mm long, oblong, caducous, with an entire margin and apiculate apex, with a tiny inturned mucro; pedicels 4–6 mm long. Flowers bisexual, 6–10 mm diameter. Sepals 4, broadly ovate to nearly orbicular, with an obtuse apex. Petals 4, pale green, broadly elliptical to almost orbicular. Stamens 4, alternating with the petals. Carpels 4, fused together into an almost hemispherical ovary; style inserted centrally, conical; stigma simple. Fruit a globose capsule, pink, up to 1 cm wide before dehiscence. Seeds completely enclosed in a bright orange aril. Flowering Nov., fruiting May.
Tas. (TNM – naturalised); also naturalised in SA; native in Japan, naturalised in New Zealand and southern Europe. In Tasmania, naturalised in the Cataract Gorge in Launceston. A widely planted ornamental shrub, often used for hedging and screening, renowned for its hardiness, and dark-green or variegated foliage.
2 * MAYTENUS
Maytenus Molina, Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili 177, 349 (1782).
Celastrus sect. Gymnosporia Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 59 (1854); Gymnosporia (Wight & Arn.) Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. [Bentham & Hooker f.] 1(1): 359, 365 (1862) (nom. cons.)
Evergreen shrubs or trees, rarely vines (not in Tasmania). Leaves alternate, sometimes distichous (not in Tasmania), petiolate; lamina coriaceous; margin serrate. Inflorescences axillary, fasciculate (in Tasmania), cymose, racemose, or flowers solitary. Flowers hermaphrodite or functionally unisexual, bracteate, pedicellate, hypogynous. Sepals 4 (not in Tasmania) or 5, free, imbricate in bud. Petals 4 (not in Tasmania) or 5, free, imbricate in bud, spreading. Hypogynous disc annular, fleshy. Stamens as many as, and alternating with the petals, all equal in size; staminoides sometimes present; anthers introrse, longitudinally dehiscent. Carpels 2–5, but usually all but one abortive; ovary superior but adnate to disk, or partly inferior; ovules 2 per loculus, pendulous or ascending; style 1, stigmas 1-3. Fruit a capsule, membranous or coriaceous, loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds 1–4, with a fleshy aril enveloping part or the whole seed.
A genus of c. 200 species, essentially pan-tropical, though extending to sub-polar regions in South America. Nine species are found in Australia, including one naturalised and two undescribed taxa. One of these (naturalised) is found in Tasmania. Several species, such as Maytenus acuminata, M. boaria, M. magellanica and M. procumbens have been variously used as ornamentals around the world.
Key References: James (1992), Marticorena & Rodríguez (2011).
1 * Maytenus magellanica (Lam.) Hook.f., Bot. Antarct. Voy. I. (Fl. Antarct.). 2: 254 (1845)
Illustrations: R.A. Rodriguez, et al., Flora Arbórea de Chile, Pl. 46, Fig. 56 (1983). A. Lourteig in M.N. Correa (ed.), Flora Patagónica 5: Fig. 81 (1988). C. Marticorena & R. Rodríguez, Flora de Chile 3(1): 36, Pl. 11b (2011).
Evergreen, glabrous, woody shrubs or small trees to 5 m tall. Terminal branches terete, reddish. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules 1–2 mm long, filiform, laciniate, caducous; petiole 2–4 mm long, slightly winged, flattened; lamina 2–4 cm long, lanceolate, widest shortly below the mid-point; base cuneate; margin serrulate, with dark red-black-tipped teeth; apex acute and mucronate, recurved on drying. Flowers axillary, arranged singly or in few-flowered fascicles, bracteate, hermaphrodite or unisexual; bracts ovate, tinted reddish brown, scarious; pedicels 2–3 mm long. Male flowers: Sepals 5, approximately 1 mm long, suborbicular to broad-cuneate, reddish, with apex obtuse. Petals 5, 2.5–3.0 mm long and 1.5–2.0 mm wide, elliptical-ovate to oblong, heavily suffused in burgundy red, with obtuse apex. Disk 5-lobed, fleshy, dark olive-green to brown. Stamens 5, inserted around the base of the disk between petals, up to 2 mm long; anthers approximately 0.6 mm long, introrse. Ovary rudimentary. Female flowers: Sepals as the male. Petals caducous, ovate, to 2 mm long. Disk annular, attached to the lower part of the ovary. Stamens rudimentary. Carpels with ovaries ovoid, bilocular and bilobed; stigma very short, lobed, flattened. Fruit a capsule, up to 7 mm long, obovoid or orbicular-obcordate, compressed; valves 2, emarginate, obtuse. Seeds 2, 4.5–6.0 mm long, ellipsoidal, chestnut-coloured, covered in their lower third by a yellowish aril. Flowers Oct.–Nov.
Tas. (TCH – naturalised); native to Chile and Argentina, from Los Ángeles province in Chile to the southernmost tip of South America, to an altitude of 2,000 m a.s.l. In Tasmania, it is known only from the Steppes homestead, where it was likely planted as an ornamental, and has naturalised in cleared areas around the house, though not into the surrounding bushland.
Stackhousia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 218 (1798).
Plokiostigma Schuch., Linnaea 26: 39 (1854).
Perennial herbs or small shrubs. Leaves alternate, subsessile; lamina often somewhat fleshy, with an entire margin. Inflorescence terminal, spicate, racemose, or with solitary flowers. Flowers bisexual, bracteate, very shortly pedicellate, perigynous. Hypanthium short, campanulate, persistent in fruit. Sepals 5, free, imbricate. Petals 5, free at the base, fused in the middle into a tube, apices free and spreading. Hypogynous disc annular. Stamens 5, 3 long and 2 short; anthers bilocular, longitudinally dehiscent. Carpels usually 3(–5, not in Tasmania), united in a central axis; ovary superior; ovule 1 per loculus, ascending; style (1–)2–5, free or partially joined; stigma 1, lobed. Fruit a schizocarp with up to 5 mericarps. Seeds (mericarps) erect with a fleshy endosperm.
An exclusively Australasian genus of 25 currently accepted species (4 of these not formally described), of which 24 occur in Australia (23 endemic), and 5 in Tasmania. One species is endemic to mountain areas in New Zealand. Stackhousia was previously placed (Cronquist 1981) in the family Stackhousiaceae. The Angiosperm Phylogeny group treat Stackhousiaceae within a broader-sense Celastraceae (Stevens 2001).
Key references: Barker (1984), (1999), Brooks (1992), Curtis (1975).
|1.||Plant compact, less than 15 cm high; flowers solitary in uppermost leaf axils||1 S. pulvinaris|
|1:||Plant more than 15 cm high; flowers in terminal spikes or racemes||2|
|2.||Flowers yellow, clustered in fascicles of less than 5 at the nodes within the spike||2 S. viminea|
|2:||Flowers white, alternate and not clustered in fascicles within the inflorescence||3|
|3.||Leaves spathulate; leaf apex obtuse or rounded; mericarps winged||3 S. spathulata|
|3:||Leaves broad-lanceolate to linear; leaf apex acute or apiculate; mericarps not winged||4|
|4.||Plant with underground rhizome; stems mostly unbranched from rhizome; leaves somewhat succulent; bracts saccate or inflated||4 S. subterranea|
|4:||Plant with erect taproot; stems branched from the base; leaves mostly flat; bracts not saccate or inflated||5 S. monogyna|
1 Stackhousia pulvinaris F.Muell., Trans. Philos. Soc. Victoria 1: 101 (1855)
Alpine candles, Alpine stackhousia
Stackhousia pulvinaris var. typica f. intermedia Pamp., Bull. Herb. Boissier Sér. 2, 5: 915 (1905).
Illustrations: Cochrane et al., Flowers and Plants of Victoria: 162, t. 511 (1968); Brooks, Fl. New South Wales 3: 39 (1992); Kirkpatrick, Alpine Tasmania: 106, fig. 47e (1997); Barker, Fl. Victoria 4: 53, fig. 8g (1999); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria: 225, t. 784 (2000); Howells (Ed.), Tasmania’s Natural Flora, ed. 2, p. 357 (2012).
Densely matted, glabrous perennial herb to 5 cm high. Branches creeping or ascending, rooting towards the base, with raised leaf scars. Leaves crowded; stipules minute, filiform; lamina 4–10 mm long and 1.1–1.7 mm wide, fleshy, bright yellow-green, linear to narrowly oblong, narrowing gradually at the base; apex obtuse. Flowers single, subsessile in the uppermost leaf axils, sweetly scented; bracts and bracteoles tiny and usually hidden in the leaf axil. Hypanthium sometimes hidden in the leaf axil, 0.5–1.0 mm long. Sepals 0.8–1.2 mm long, 0.5–0.7 mm wide; margin entire; apex obtuse. Corolla off-white to creamy yellow; tube 3–4 mm long; lobes 2–3 mm long, oblong; apex obtuse to broadly acute. Carpels smooth; style short; stigma lobed. Mericarps (1–)3, up to 2.5 mm long, obovoid, glabrous, surface rugose. Flowering Nov.–Dec.; fruiting Feb.
Tas. (TCH); also Vic. and NSW. A rare highland herb of primarily grassy herbfields, often in seepages or depressions, to 800 m a.s.l. (to 2000 m in NSW). This is the only Tasmanian Stackhousia that has single-flowered inflorescences.
2 Stackhousia viminea Sm., Cycl. (Rees): 33 (1816)
Yellow candles, Yellow stackhousia
Stackhousia flava Hook.f., Icon. Pl. 3, t. 269 (1840); S. viminea f. flava (Hook.f.) Pamp., Bull. Herb. Boissier Sér. 2, 5: 1058 (1905).
Illustrations: Brooks, Fl. New South Wales 3: 39 (1992); Barker, Fl. Victoria 4: 53, fig. 8e (1999); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria: 226, t. 786 (2000); Howells (Ed.), Tasmania’s Natural Flora, ed. 2, p. 358 (2012).
Glabrous perennial herb 15–30(–70 but not in Tasmania) cm high. Stems branching from the base, erect or ascending. Leaves sometimes reduced to scales near the base; stipules minute and inconspicuous, filiform; lamina 5–20 mm long, 1.5–2.5 mm wide, narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, tapering gradually at the base; apex acute or bluntly acute. Inflorescence a terminal spike of shortly pedicellate flowers that are arranged in groups of up to 5 at the nodes. Bracts and bracteoles to 1 mm long, ovate, with undulate to shallowly erose margin and apiculate or acuminate apex. Hypanthium 0.5 mm long. Sepals 0.5–0.8 mm long and up to 0.6 mm wide, triangular; margin entire to undulate. Corolla yellow to yellow-green; tube 2–4 mm long; lobes 1.5–3.0 mm long, oblong, spreading widely; apex long-acute, sometimes obtuse or acuminate. Carpels reticulate; style winged; stigma lobed, lobes terete, papillose. Mericarps 1–3, up to 2.7 mm long, broadly obovoid to ellipsoid, glabrous with a rugose-reticulate surface. Flowering Oct. –Jan.; fruiting Dec.–Feb.
Tas. (KIN, TWE); all Australian States. A rare plant of lowland wet heathlands in the northwest, to 200m a.s.l. Stackhousia viminea is the only Tasmanian Stackhousia with flowers arranged in groups within the spike, all other species have alternate single flowers along the rachis.
3 Stackhousia spathulata Sieber ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. [Sprengel] 4: 124 (1827)
Coast candles, Coast stackhousia
Stackhousia maculata Hook.f., J. Bot. 2: 421 (1840); S. spathulata f. maculata (Hook.f.) Pamp., Bull. Herb. Boissier Sér. 2, 5: 1055 (1905). Stackhousia spathulata f. obcordata Pamp., Bull. Herb. Boissier Sér. 2, 5: 1054 (1905).
Illustrations: Brooks, Fl. New South Wales 3: 39 (1992); Barker, Fl. Victoria 4: 53, fig. 8f (1999); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria: 226, t. 785 (2000); Howells (Ed.), Tasmania’s Natural Flora, ed. 2, p. 357 (2012).
Glabrous perennial to 45 cm. Stems branching at the base, procumbent or ascending. Leaves caducous towards the base; stipules terete, 0.3–0.7 mm long; lamina 9–30 mm long and 3–8 mm wide, somewhat thick, obovate to spathulate, gradually narrowing at the base; apex rounded to broadly acute, occasionally acute. Inflorescence a dense terminal spike. Flowers, subsessile, arranged singly at the nodes; bracts 2.5–4.0 mm long and 1.0–1.5 mm wide, ovate to linear-lanceolate, with margin entire and apex narrowly acute; bracteoles to 2 mm long, shaped as the bracts. Hypanthium 1.0–1.5 mm long. Sepals 1.2–2.0 mm long, ovate to lanceolate; margin entire to serrate; apex rounded to acute or apiculate. Corolla creamy white; tube 5–8 mm long; lobes 3–4 mm long; apex obtuse. Carpels rugose; style very short; stigma 3-lobed, papillose. Mericarps 1–3, 4–6 mm long, conspicuously winged. Flowering Oct.–Dec.; fruiting Nov.–Feb.
Tas. (KIN, TWE, TSR, FUR); also S.A., Vic., N.S.W., Qld. An exclusively coastal plant, rarely found more than a few hundred meters from the sea. Stackhousia spathulata can be confused with S. monogyna. The easiest way to distinguish the two is by the shape of the fruit, as S. spathulata is the only Tasmanian Stackhousia with winged mericarps.
4 Stackhousia subterranea W.R.Barker, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 21: 90 (2007)
Stackhousia gunnii Hook.f., Bot. Antarct. Voy. III. (Fl. Tasman.) 1: 79 (1855) nom. illeg. non Schltdl. (1847) Stackhousia sp. 1, Fl. Victoria 4: 51 (1999); S. aff. monogyna (Western Plains) Fl. Victoria 4: 51 (1999). Stackhousia sp. Midlands (D.I.Morris 86361) Duretto
Illustrations: Barker, Fl. Victoria 4: 53, fig. 8d (as Stackhousia sp. 1) (1999); Gilfedder, Kirkpatrick, Wapstra & Wapstra. The Nature of the Midlands: 126 (as S. gunnii) (2003). Howells (Ed.), Tasmania’s Natural Flora, ed. 2, p. 358 (2012).
Glabrous perennial rhizomatous herb to 25 cm high, rarely branched above the soil surface. Leaves crowded near the base, becoming more distant towards the inflorescence; stipules minute; lamina 8–25 mm long, 2–4 mm wide, reducing in size and narrowing towards the inflorescence, somewhat fleshy, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; base narrowing gradually; apex acute to apiculate, often mucronate. Inflorescence a terminal spike. Flowers subsessile, arranged singly at the nodes, with an unpleasant perfume; bracts 3–5 mm long, lanceolate, commonly saccate and inflated with margin serrated to erose, and apex acute to apiculate, sometimes mucronulate; bracteoles vestigial and inconspicuous. Hypanthium 0.75–1.0 mm long. Sepals 1.2–1.6 mm long and 1.0–1.5 mm wide, triangular; margin serrulate to shallowly erose; apex acute. Corolla cream to yellowish; tube 4–6 mm long; lobes 3–4 mm long, oblong; apex rounded. Carpels smooth; style very short; stigma 3-lobed, papillose. Mericarps (1–)3(–4), up to 3 mm long, broadly obovoid to ellipsoid, glabrous, surface obtusely rugose. Flowering (Sep.–) Oct.–Dec.; fruiting Dec.–Jan.
Tas. (TNM); also S.A. and Vic. A rare plant of grassland and grassy woodland, restricted to a few locations in the Midlands and South Esk River valley. This plant is easily confused with, and was long considered to be part of the highly variable S. monogyna, for example by Barker (1984). The main distinguishing features of S. subterranea are its rhizomatous growth habit, lack of branching above the soil surface, unpleasantly scented flowers and its fleshy leaves.
5 Stackhousia monogyna Labill., Nov. Holl. Pl. 1: 77, t.104 (1805)
Forest Candles, Candles, Native mignonette
Stackhousia obtusa Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 22: sub t. 1917 (t. labelled 1916 in error) (1836); S. monogyna var. obtusa (Lindl.) Pamp., Bull. Herb. Boissier Sér. 2, 5: 1047 (1905). Stackhousia huegelii Endl., Enum. Pl. [Endlicher] 17 (1837). Stackhousia gunnii Schltdl., Linnaea 20: 642 (1847); S. gunniana orth. var. Schltdl., Linnaea 26: 18 (1854). Stackhousia muelleri Schuch., Linnaea 26: 16 (1854) p.p.; S. monogyna var. muelleri (Schuch.) Pamp., Bull. Herb. Boissier Sér. 2, 5: 1045 (1905). Stackhousia gunnii Hook.f., p. p. sensu Barker, Fl. Australia 22: 188 (1984).
Illustrations: Cochrane et al., Flowers and Plants of Victoria: 23, t. 23 (1968); Curtis & Morris, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania, ed. 2, 1:112 fig. 31 (1975); Brooks, Fl. New South Wales 3: 39 (1992); Barker, Fl. Victoria 4: 53, fig. 8c (1999); Cameron [ed.] A Guide to the Flowers & Plants of Tasmania: 59 t. 126 (2000); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria: 225, t. 783 (2000). Gilfedder, Kirkpatrick, Wapstra & Wapstra. The Nature of the Midlands: 126 (2003). Howells (Ed.), Tasmania’s Natural Flora, ed. 2, p. 356 (2012).
Glabrous tap-rooted perennial to 80 cm high. Stems usually branching from the base, erect or ascending, sometimes branched above. Leaves alternate, sometimes crowded; stipules minute, filiform; lamina 8–55 mm long and 2–10 mm wide, sometimes thick but not fleshy, narrow-linear to narrow obovate, sometimes spathulate; base narrowing gradually; apex rounded to narrowly acute or apiculate, often mucronulate. Inflorescence a terminal spike. Flowers subsessile, arranged singly at the nodes, sweetly perfumed; bracts 2–3(–5) mm long, narrow-lanceolate to narrowly ovate, sometimes inflated, with margin entire to shallowly erose and apex acute to narrowly acute; bracteoles vestigial, sometimes inconspicuous. Hypanthium 0.5–1.0 mm long. Sepals 1–2 mm long, 0.75–1.1 mm wide, triangular; margins serrulate-erose; apex acute. Corolla white to cream; tube 4–7 mm long; lobes 3–4 mm long, oblong; apex rounded to bluntly acute. Carpels smooth to reticulate; stigma subsessile, 3-lobed, lobes papillose. Mericarps (1–)3, up to 3 mm long, broadly obovoid to ellipsoid, glabrous, surface rugose-reticulate. Flowering (Sep.–)Oct.–Mar.(–Apr.); fruiting (Sep.–) Dec.–Apr.
Tas. (All regions except MI); also Vic., N.S.W., S.A., Qld. and W.A. A common and morphologically variable plant found throughout Tasmania in a wide range of habitats; to 1350 m a.s.l. Stackhousia monogyna can be confused with S. subterranea and S. spathulata. See comments under the latter two species for discussion of how to differentiate them.
ALA (Atlas of Living Australia) http://www.ala.org.au/
APC (Australian Plant Census) https://biodiversity.org.au/nsl/services/apc
APNI (Australian Plant Name Index) https://biodiversity.org.au/nsl/services/apni
AVH (Australia’s Virtual Herbarium) (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria) http://avh.chah.org.au/
Barker WR (1984) Stackhousiaceae. Flora of Australia 22 186–199.
Barker WR (1999) Stackhousiaceae. Flora of Victoria 4 49–54.
Brooks AK (1992) Stackhousiaceae. Flora of New South Wales 3 38–40.
Curtis WM (1975) Stackhousiaceae. Student’s Flora of Tasmania 1 111–112
IPNI (International Plant Name Index) http://www.ipni.org
James TA (1992) Celastraceae. Flora of New South Wales 3 32–37.
Jessup LW (1984) Celastraceae. Flora of Australia 22 150–180.
Marticorena C & Rodríguez R (2011) Celastraceae. Flora de Chile 3(1) 30–36
NVA (Natural Values Atlas) (Department of Primary Industries and Water: Hobart) https://www.naturalvaluesatlas.tas.gov.au/
Stevens PF (2001 onwards) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since] http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
NOTE: Web addresses can and do change: a list of current web addresses is maintained in the web version of this treatment on the Flora of Tasmania Online website at https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/
This work can be cited as: de Salas MF (2019). Celastraceae, version 2019:1. In MF de Salas (Ed.) Flora of Tasmania Online. 7 pp. (Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery: Hobart). https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/vascular-families/celastraceae/ (accessed ). ↩︎
Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery, PO Box 5058, UTAS LPO, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005, Australia. ↩︎