111 CONVOLVULACEAE 1
Alan M Gray † 2
Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or climbing or trailing plants, sometimes leafless parasites with stem haustoria (Cuscuta), rarely trees; glabrous or pubescent; milky sap often present. Leaves exstipulate, alternate, simple, entire to deeply lobed, or sometimes reduced to scales or absent. Inflorescences usually axillary, racemes, cymes or compound cymose clusters, or sometimes flower solitary; bracts and bracteoles usually present. Flowers small or large and showy, actinomorphic, rarely slightly zygomorphic, bisexual, occasionally cleistogamous. Sepals (3)4–5(6), usually free or united at base, persistent. Corolla campanulate, tubular or urceolate, rarely rotate or trumpet-shaped, (3)4–5(6) lobed. Stamens 5; filaments fused to the base of the corolla and alternating with the lobes or inserted at the throat between the lobes, sometimes narrow-triangular and subtended by fimbriate scales (Cuscuta); anthers 2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Disc usually present. Ovary superior, 2(3–4) locular; ovules (1)2 per locule; styles 1(2), entire, free or forked; stigmas linear or capitate. Fruit a dry or thinly fleshy capsule, sometimes a berry, or indehiscent. Seeds 4 or 6, sometimes fewer by abortion; endosperm scanty.
A family of about 57 genera and 1600 species; virtually cosmopolitan but mainly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In Australia there are about 20 genera and 110 species; 6 genera, 14 species (9 native) in Tasmania. Convolvulaceae are placed in the Solanales near Solanaceae. Cuscuta has often been placed in its own monogeneric family.
The family is of some economical and horticultural importance. Several species of Ipomoea L. have starchy, edible tubers, such as I. batatas (L.) Lam. (Sweet Potato) and several native species which were eaten extensively by Aboriginal people. Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne is the source of the medicinal purgative Jalap. Some exotic species of Ipomoea (Morning Glory) are cultivated for their flamboyant, colourful flowers. Species of Dichondra (Kidney Weed) are occasionally used as a lawn substitute. Some exotic species of Calystegia and Convolvulus (Bindweed) and Cuscuta (Dodder) are occasionally aggressive and troublesome weeds in pastures, crops and neglected gardens.
Synonymy: Cuscutaceae, Dichondraceae.
External resources: accepted names with synonymy & distribution in Australia (APC); author & publication abbreviations (IPNI); mapping (AVH, NVA); nomenclature (APC, APNI, IPNI).
|1.||Twining parasites with red or yellowish filiform stems; leaves minute, scale-like||1 Cuscuta|
|1:||Green or grey leafy non-parasitic plants; stems ascending, creeping, climbing or trailing||2|
|2.||Sepals joined, tubular-campanulate, tube longer than the lobes||3 Wilsonia|
|2:||Sepals free or joined at the extreme base and then tube very short||3|
|3.||Corolla rotate; tube c. 1 mm long; flowers occasionally cleistogamous||2 Dichondra|
|3:||Corolla funnel-shaped; tube 5–60 mm long; flowers always opening||4|
|4.||Stigma capitate or bi-globose||6 Ipomoea|
|4:||Stigma 2-lobed, the lobes linear or oblong||5|
|5.||Bracteoles 1–3 mm long, distinctly distant from the calyx||4 Convolvulus|
|5:||Bracteoles 6–30 mm long, over-lapping and usually obscuring the calyx||5 Calystegia|
Cuscuta L., Sp. Pl. 1: 124 (1753).
Synonymy: Grammica Lour., Fl. Cochinch. edn 1, 1: 98, 170 (1790).
Parasitic annuals or perenials; stems red or yellowish, filiform, twining, attached to the host plant by haustoria; soon after attachment to a host plant, the stem withers near the base, breaking connection with the roots (thus parasitism is complete). Leaves reduced to very small non-green scales. Inflorescences axillary, simple or compound cymose clusters; bracts present. Flowers small, actinomorphic, bisexual. Sepals (3)4–5, free or united at the base, persistent. Corolla urceolate or campanulate, distinctly (3)4–5 lobed, lobes imbricate in bud. Stamens inserted at the throat of the corolla tube, alternating with the lobes; filaments narrow-triangular, subtended by fimbriate scales; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Ovary 2-locular; ovules 2 per locule; styles free or united; stigmas linear or capitate. Fruit a dry or thinly fleshy capsule, indehiscent or circumscissile. Seeds 4, or less by abortion, granular; endosperm scanty.
A cosmopolitan genus of bout 180 species; 10 species (4 endemic, 6 naturalised) in Australia; 3 species (1 native, 2 naturalised) in Tasmania.
|1.||Flowers in dense axillary clusters; stigmas linear||1 C. epithymum|
|1:||Flowers in loose, few-flowered, axillary clusters; stigmas capitate||2|
|2.||Calyx nearly as long as the corolla tube; corolla lobes as long or longer than the tube||2 C. tasmanica|
|2:||Calyx much shorter than the corolla tube; corolla lobes shorter than the tube||3 C. suaveolens|
1 * Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L., Syst. Veg. edn 1, 140 (1774)
Cuscuta europaea var. epithymum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 124 (1753).
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. S. Austral. 3: 1139, fig. 527d (1986); Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 375 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 378, fig. 73a (1999).
Stems pale yellow, reddish or purple, filiform. Inflorescence a dense cluster c. 10 mm diam.; subtending bract, obtuse, 1–2 mm long; pedicels 0–0.5 mm long. Calyx 1.5–2.5 mm long, divided almost to the base; lobes unequal, longer than the tube, ovate-triangular, with a small, bladder-like keel. Corolla white, pinkish or translucent, urceolate, 2.5–4.0 mm long; lobes triangular, acute, equal to or slightly longer than the tube. Scales subtending stamens oblong, shorter than or equal to the tube, very shortly fringed. Stamens exserted; filaments erect, shorter than the corolla lobes. Styles free, linear, filiform. Capsule sub-globose, c. 2 mm diam., circumscissile. Seeds c. 1 mm long. Flowering & fruiting Dec.–Mar.
Tas. (TSE); also naturalised in WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic., New Zealand; native to Europe, Mediterranean region. An occasional but widespread plant in the south-east of the state. A weedy species that has been observed growing on species of Coprosma, Epacris and Trifolium. Listed as a Declared Weed under the Weed Management Act 1999.
2 Cuscuta tasmanica Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 11: 512 (1840)
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 374 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 378, fig. 73c (1999); Gilfedder et al., The Nature of the Midlands 83 (2003).
Stems twining, pale yellow. Inflorescence a loose, few-flowered cluster; subtending bract, obtuse, c. 1.5 mm long; pedicels mostly 3–6 mm long. Calyx 1.5–2.0 mm long, almost equalling the corolla tube, divided nearly to the base; lobes unequal, obtuse. Corolla pale creamy-white, campanulate, 3–4 mm long; lobes uneven, ovate-oblong, obtuse, equal to or a little longer than the tube. Scales subtending stamens erect, equal to, or longer than corolla tube; fringe dense, to 0.5 mm long. Stamens almost sessile at the throat of the corolla. Styles free; stigmas large, capitate, lobed. Capsule depressed-globose, c. 3.5 mm diam., indehiscent. Seeds 1.5–2.0 mm long. Flowering & fruiting Nov.–Feb.
Tas. (FUR, TNM, TSE); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic. In Tasmania, the species has been observed growing on the margins of salt and brackish marshes in the central north, and the south-east and north-east coasts. It has been recorded as parasitic on Selliera radicans Cav. and species of Wilsonia. Listed as Rare under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.
NOTE: Examination of the 12 sheets of C. tasmanica held at the Tasmanian Herbarium, as well as a single sheet from Melbourne, has indicated that the greater majority of flowers possess stigmas which are much shorter than as depicted in the Flora of Victoria (Jeanes 1999; p. 378, fig. 73c). This apparent discrepancy may be due to a developmental phenomenon whereby the styles elongate at or during late anthesis, to become exserted beyond the top of the corolla tube in older flowers. Or perhaps, more probably, it may indicate protandry or heterostyly, conditions not hitherto observed or described in previous accounts of this genus or it is, possibly, variation between the different populations.
3 * Cuscuta suaveolens Ser., Ann. Sci. Phys. Nat. Lyon 3: 519 (1840)
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 374 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 378, fig. 73d (1999).
Stems yellowish, occasionally rather stout. Inflorescence a loose, few-flowered axillary cluster; subtending bract obtuse, c. 1.5 mm long; pedicels mostly 3–6 mm long. Calyx 1.5–2.0 mm long, much shorter than the corolla tube; lobes almost equal, triangular-ovate, acute. Corolla white, campanulate 3–4 mm long; lobes triangular to triangular-ovate, acute, much shorter than the tube. Scales subtending stamens oblong, scarcely as long as the corolla tube; fringe dense. Filaments of stamens 0.5–0.8 mm long; anthers as long as the filaments. Styles free; stigmas capitate. Capsule globose, c. 3.5 mm diam., indehiscent. Seeds 1.5–2.0 mm long. Flowering & fruiting Dec.–Apr.
Tas. (TNS); also naturalised in SA, NSW, Vic.; native to South America. A weedy species recorded in the north of the state at a Vegetable Research Station on a weedy Solanum species. Listed as a Declared Weed under the Weed Management Act 1999.
Dichondra J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. edn. 1: 39, t. 20 (1775).
Perennial herbs with creeping (sometimes subterranean) prostrate stems. Leaves petiolate, simple, entire. Flowers axillary, solitary, bracteolate. Sepals 5, free or united only at base, subequal. Corolla campanulate, 5-lobed, lobes induplicate-valvate or slightly imbricate, glabrous. Stamens 5, inserted between the corolla lobes (in Australia); filaments almost equal, glabrous. Ovary glabrous, deeply 2-lobed; ovules 2 per lobe; styles 2, inserted between the lobes; stigmas capitate. Capsule deeply 2-lobed, indehiscent or irregularly 2-valved and dehiscing irregularly; lobes pilose (in Australia). Seeds 1(2) per lobe, smooth.
A genus of about 15 species found mainly in tropical regions; 2 species in Australia.
1 Dichondra repens J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. 40, t. 20 (1776)
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. S. Austral. 3: 1141, fig. 528a (1986); Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 375 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 368, fig. 71a (1999); Gilfedder et al., The Nature of the Midlands 136 (2003); Richardson et al., Weeds of The South-East, an identification Guide for Australia 233 (2006).
Perennial herbs; vegetative parts softly puberulous; stems prostrate (sometimes subterranean), creeping, rooting at the nodes, much branched and forming large patches. Leaves alternate or clustered due to development on short, nodal shoots; petioles slender, erect or spreading, 1–8 times as long as the lamina; lamina reniform to sub-orbicular, 5–25 mm long, (5–)10–25(–35) mm wide, base cordate, apex rounded or emarginate. Flowers solitary, axillary, on filiform pedicels usually shorter than the petioles. Calyx 2.5–4.5 mm long, shortly united at the base; lobes oblong-elliptic. Corolla pale greenish-yellow, rotate; tube to 1 mm long; lobes 1.5–3.5 mm long, ovate-elliptic, glabrous. Capsule deeply 2-lobed, lobes shorter than the calyx. Seeds usually 2, dark brown, c. 1.0–1.5 mm diam., ellipsoid. Flowering & fruiting Sep.–Apr.
Tas. (BEL, FUR, KIN, TCH, TNM, TNS, TSE, TWE); also in WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic., New Zealand; widespread in temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. Widespread and very common throughout the state and found in dry, sandy or stony soils, in open heaths, woodlands and coastal situations, from sea-level to c. 500 m alt. Occasionally the species invades and establishes as a weed in suburban lawns and gardens; conversely, it has been used as an alternative to grasses in lawn applications.
Curtis (1967), in The Student’s Flora of Tasmania, refers to the possibility of another taxon in Tasmania, with the comment: “Certain Tasmanian plants which are distinctive in habit have retained their differences when transplanted and grown side by side in approximately uniform conditions. Further study of these variants is necessary”. An undescribed species was noted by both Jeanes (1996) and Johnson (1992) which is now called Dichondra sp. Inglewood (J.M.Dalby 86/93) Qld Herbarium (APC, APNI). Whether this matches the undescribed form alluded to by Curtis (1967) requires further research.
Wilsonia R.Br., Prodr. Nov. Holland. 490 (1810).
Small perennial undershrubs; stems prostrate or weakly ascending. Leaves sessile or shortly petiolate, simple, entire, fleshy. Flowers solitary in leaf axils; bracteoles absent. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed; lobes shorter than the tube, bearded on the adaxial surface, persistent. Corolla salver-shaped, tube narrow, 5-lobed; lobes glabrous, oblong, spreading or recurved, imbricate in bud, margins induplicate. Stamens 5; filaments almost equal, glabrous. Ovary partly or completely 2-locular with 1(2) erect ovules in each loculus; style 1, terminal, bifid; stigmas capitate or ovoid. Capsule obovoid, shorter than calyx, indehiscent.
An Australian genus of 3 species.
|1.||Leaves imbricate, distichous, appressed silvery-hairy; corolla tube about as long as the calyx; stamens and styles barely exserted; anthers scarcely spirally twisted after dehiscence||1 W. humilis|
|1:||Leaves alternate or clustered, green, glabrous or variously hirsute-hairy; corolla tube much longer than the calyx; stamens and styles much exserted; anthers distinctly spirally twisted after dehiscence||2|
|2.||Leaves linear-lanceolate to linear-obovate, glabrous||2 W. backhousei|
|2:||Leaves broad-ovate to ovate-spathulate, variously hirsute-hairy||3 W. rotundifolia|
1 Wilsonia humilis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 490 (1810)
Frankenia cymbifolia Hook., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 3: t. 265 (1840). Wilsonia humilis var. spinescens Benth., Fl. Austral. 4: 40 (1868). Wilsonia humilis var. macrophylla Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Systematic (1904).
Illustrations: Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 500, fig.112 (1967); Kirkpatrick et al., City Parks & Cemeteries: Tasmania’s Remnant Grasslands & Grassy Woodlands 3, pl. 24-3 (1988); Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 376 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 368, fig. 71d (1999).
Small subshrubs with a short rootstock bearing a number of prostrate or weakly ascending branches, spreading to 15–30 cm, often rooting at the distal portion and spreading further. Leaves sessile, 1.5–4.0 mm long, 1–3 mm wide, imbricate, distichous, crowded on short lateral branches, ovate to lanceolate or oblong, thick, concave, grey-green with silvery appressed hairs, apex rounded. Flowers sessile, solitary at the tips of short branches. Calyx tubular, 4–6 mm long; lobes triangular, much shorter than the tube, both surfaces silky pubescent. Corolla white, tube almost as long as the calyx; lobes 2–3 mm long, narrow-oblong, acute. Anthers inserted just below the throat, shortly exserted, scarcely spirally twisted after dehiscence. Ovary 1–2 locular; style divided at about the middle to 2 branches; stigmas capitate. Capsule c. 3 mm long, enclosed within the persistent calyx. Flowering & fruiting Dec.–Mar.
Tas. (FUR, TNM, TSE); also in WA, SA, NSW?, Vic. Scattered and very localised in coastal salt-marshes in the east and north of the state. Listed as Rare under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. The species was collected from the Tasmanian Northern Midlands for the first time in 2010 on the margins of a brackish lagoon.
2 Wilsonia backhousei Hook.f., London J. Bot. 6: 275 (1847) [as W. backhousii]
Illustrations: Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 500, fig.113 (1967); Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 375 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 368, fig. 71a (1999).
Small undershrubs, often with a woody rhizome creeping through muddy ground and bearing stout, ascending or procumbent branches, to c. 5–15 cm high. Leaves sessile, 5–15(–20) mm long, 1–3 mm wide, linear-lanceolate to linear-obovate, fleshy, terete, more or less glabrous, apex blunt or acute to mucronate. Flowers solitary, sessile or on pedicels to 1.5 mm long. Calyx tubular 6–7 mm long; lobes triangular, much shorter than the tube, adaxial surface of the tube pubescent, abaxial surface glabrous. Corolla white, tube about twice as long as the calyx; lobes narrow-triangular, 2–4 mm long, spreading and recurved. Stamens much exserted; filaments inserted on the tube c. 1.0–1.5 mm below the throat; anthers dehiscing longitudinally, spirally twisting after dehiscence. Ovary 1–2-locular; styles 2; stigmas ovoid, exserted to about the level of the stamens. Capsule c. 3 mm long. Flowering Nov.–Jan.; fruiting Jan.–Mar.
Tas. (FUR, TSE); also in WA, SA, NSW, Vic. Scattered and localised at the upper margins of coastal salt-marshes in the east and north of the state.
3 Wilsonia rotundifolia Hook., Icon. Pl. 5: t. 410 (1841)
Wilsonia ovalifolia F.Muell. ex Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Systematic 16: 532 (1893).
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 376 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 368, fig. 71e (1999); Gilfedder et al., The Nature of the Midlands 124 (2003).
Small sub-shrubs with prostrate, spreading branches, hirsute with spreading hairs. Leaves sometimes clustered, sessile or shortly petiolate, 1.4–5(–7) mm long, 1–3 mm wide, glabrescent to sparsely hirsute; lamina broad-ovate with apex acute, or oblong-spathulate with apex obtuse. Flowers solitary, subsessile. Calyx tubular, 4.5–5.0 mm long; lobes triangular, c. 1/3 length of the tube, both surfaces hirsute. Corolla white, tube 4.5–5.0 mm long; lobes oblong-elliptic, 2–3 mm long, acute. Stamens strongly exserted; filaments inserted just below the throat; anthers spirally twisted after dehiscence. Ovary completely or partially 2-loculular; style divided just below the middle into 2 branches, strongly exserted beyond the throat of the corolla; stigmas capitate. Capsule c. 3 mm long. Flowering Nov.–Feb.; fruiting Jan.–Mar..
Tas. (TNM, TSE); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic. Recorded from a few localities in the central north and the east coast of the state, at the upper margins of coastal salt-marshes and inland salt-pans. Listed as Rare under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.
Convolvulus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 153 (1753).
Synonymy: Pharbitis Choisy, Convolv. Oriental. 483 (1834); Ipomoea series Pharbitis (Choisy) Benth., Fl. Austral. 4: 413, 416 (1868). Plesiagopus Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 78 (1838).
Perennial or rarely annual herbs, glabrous or with simple hairs; stems trailing or climbing, or rarely sub-shrubs, sometimes woody at the base. Leaves alternate, petiolate, simple, entire to deeply lobed, sometimes sagittate or hastate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal. Inflorescences cymose, 1(–3)-flowered; bracteoles small, distant from the calyx. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, lobes imbricate, almost free, equal or sub-equal. Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, entire or slightly 5-lobed; mid-petaline ridges distinctly hairy, rarely glabrous. Stamens 5, enclosed, sub-equal, adnate to the corolla tube near its base; filaments terete above, expanded and flattened below, tuberculate at the base. Ovary 2-celled, glabrous; ovules 2 per cell; style 1, terminal; stigma 2-lobed, lobes linear or oblong. Capsule ovoid or globose, dehiscing longitudinally into 2–4 valves; seeds 4 per capsule, often verrucose, usually glabrous.
A genus of about 220–250 species; cosmopolitan but mainly in temperate and subtropical regions of the world; 6 species (1 endemic, 1 naturalised) in Australia; 2 species (1 native, 1 naturalised) in Tasmania.
Key reference: Johnson (2001).
|1.||Leaves and stems sparsely to moderately hairy; leaves either ovate-hastate in outline, margins crenate or deeply lobed; or, upper or all leaves narrow linear with lobed or entire basal auricles||1 C. angustissimus|
|1:||Plant more or less glabrous; leaves oblong or ovate-hastate, or sagittate, margins entire||2 C. arvensis|
1 Convolvulus angustissimus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 482 (1810), subsp. angustissimus
Convolvulus erubescens var. angustissimus (R,Br.) Choisy, Prodr. (Candolle) 9: 412 (1845). Convolvulus adscendens de Vreise, Pl. Preiss. 1(3): 346 (1845). Convolvulus acaulis Choisy, Prodr. (Candolle) 9: 406 (1845). Convolvulus subpinnatifidus de Vreise, Pl. Preiss. 1(3): 347 (1845). Convolvulus erubescens sensu G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 4: 429 (1867); W.M.Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 497 (1967), non Sims (1807).
Illustrations (all as C. erubescens): Johnson, Fl. S. Austral. 3: 1136, fig. 526c (1986); Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 383 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 373, fig. 72f (1999); Gilfedder et al., The Nature of the Midlands 108 (2003); Richardson et al., Weeds of The South-East, an identification Guide for Australia 232 (2006); Simmons et al., A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 4th edn, 131 (2008).
Perennial herbs; almost glabrous to sparsely pubescent; stems stout, often much branched, trailing and twining, to 40 cm long or more. Leaves sparsely to moderately hairy with ascending to erect hairs; petioles 5–30 mm long; lamina 1.5–5.5 cm long, 1–35 mm wide, ovate to oblong-lanceolate in outline, base hastate or sagittate, margins crenate, toothed or lobed, sometimes only at the base, or those of the upper leaves entire, apex acute, rounded or emarginate. Inflorescence cymose, 1(–3)-flowered; peduncles 5–50 mm long; bracteoles linear to ovate, 1–3 mm long, inserted at or a little above the middle; pedicels 2–15 mm long, shorter than peduncles. Sepals elliptic to obovate, 4–7 mm long, pubescent, rarely glabrous, apex rounded or bluntly pointed. Corolla reddish, pale pink or white, funnel-shaped, 12–20 mm long and in diam.; lobes very short, bluntly pointed, abaxial surface pubescent along the mid-petaline ridge. Ovary surrounded at the base by a nectar-secreting disc; style base persistent. Capsule globose, 4–6 mm long, slightly longer than the persistent calyx, dehiscing by 2 valves. Seeds dark brown, c. 4 mm long, more or less muricate. Flowering Oct.–Mar.; fruiting Nov.–Mar.
Tas. (BEL, FUR, TCH, TNM, TSE, TSR); also WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic. Widespread and frequent in dry grass-lands, roadside banks and open woodlands, from sea-level to c. 500 m alt., in the north and east of the state.
A further three subspecies are recognised, none of which occur in Tasmania: C. angustissimus subsp. fililobus (Wawra) R.W.Johnson (NSW, Vic.); C. angustissimus subsp. omnigracilis R.W.Johnson (Vic.); C. angustissimus subsp. peninsularum R.W.Johnson (SA) (Johnson 2001).
2 * Convolvulus arvensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 153 (1753)
Illustrations: Hyde-Wyatt & Morris, Tasmanian Weed Handbook 89, fig. 64 (1975); Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 383 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 373, fig. 72i (1999); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an identification Guide for Australia 232 (2006).
Perennial herbs with long-branched, deeply penetrating rhizomes; stems slender, procumbent, trailing or twining, to 60 cm long or more, young stems and shoots pubescent but becoming glabrous later. Leaves glabrous or sparsely hairy with ascending hairs; petioles 5–25 mm long; lamina 2–6 cm long, 3–30 mm wide, ovate, oblong or lanceolate in outline, base hastate or sagittate, margins and basal lobes entire, apex acute to mucronate. Inflorescences cymose, 1(–3) flowered; peduncles 20–40 mm long; bracteoles linear or subulate, 1–3 mm long, inserted at or a little above the middle; pedicels 5–15 mm long. Sepals obovate-oblong, 3–5 mm long, apex bluntly pointed or truncate to emarginate, glabrous or puberulent. Corolla pale pink or white, often with deeper pink stripes along the mid-petaline ridges, funnel-shaped, 15–25(–30) mm long, and c. the same in diam. Ovary surrounded at the base by a nectar-secreting disc; style base persistent. Capsule globose, c. 4 mm diam., slightly longer than the persistent calyx. Seeds glabrous, granular. Flowering Nov.–May; fruiting Jan.–May.
Tas. (TNM, TSE); also naturalised in WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic.; native to Eurasia. Widespread and frequent in grass-lands, degraded pastures and waste places in the north and east of the state. It is a weed of some concern in vegetable growing areas, being aggressive and difficult to control, particularly in crops which offer little competition.
Calystegia R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 483: (1810).
Synonymy: Volvulus Medik., Philosophische Botanic 42 (1791). Convolvulus section Calystegia (R.Br.) Benth., Fl. Austral. 4: 428, 430 (1868).
Perennial herbs, more or less glabrous, hairs, when present simple; stems trailing, twining or climbing. Leaves simple, entire or lobed, often sagittate or hastate, petiolate. Inflorescences axillary; bracteoles large, inserted immediately below and enclosing the calyx. Inflorescence usually a solitary flower (in Tasmania), or rarely a few-flowered cyme. Sepals 5, free, subequal. Corolla white or pink, funnel-shaped or campanulate, entire or shallowly 5-lobed, distinct mid-petaline ridge present. Stamens 5, subequal, included; filaments hairy along fused basal margins. Ovary 1- or incompletely 2-locular, glabrous; ovules 4; style 1; stigma 2-lobed, lobes oblong or elliptic. Capsule ovoid or globose, dehiscing longitudinally into 4 valves. Seeds 4 per capsule, glabrous, smooth.
A genus of about 26 species, mainly in temperate regions of the world; 4 species (1 naturalised) in Australia all of which occur in Tasmania.
|1.||Leaves more or less fleshy, reniform, apex rounded or emarginate; bracteoles slightly shorter than calyx; stems trailing, rarely twining (coastal habitats)||1 C. soldanella|
|1:||Leaves membranous, ovate to lanceolate, apex acute; bracteoles longer than the calyx; stems twining (not always coastal)||2|
|2.||Corolla < 2.5 cm long; bracteoles more or less orbicular, usually < 1 cm long; peduncles shorter than petioles||2 C. marginata|
|2:||Corolla > 2.5 cm long; bracteoles more or less ovate, ≥ 1 cm long; peduncles longer than petioles||3|
|3.||Bracteoles 1.5–2.0 cm long, < 15 mm wide, not overlapping, apex acute, base flat or keeled; capsule subglobose, 7–8 mm long||3 C. sepium|
|3:||Bracteoles 2.0–3.5 cm long, > 15 mm wide, overlapping, apex blunt, base conspicuously inflated, more or less cordate and keeled; capsule ovoid, 10–12 mm long||4 C. silvatica|
1 Calystegia soldanella (L.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4: 184 (1819)
Convolvulus soldanella L., Sp. Pl. 1: 159 (1753); Calystegia soldanella (L.) R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 483 (1810), nom. inval.; Convolvulus sepium var. soldanella (L.) C.Moore & Betche, Handb. Fl. N.S.W. 329 (1893). Calystegia reniformis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 484 (1810); Convolvulus reniformis (R.Br.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 590 (1824). Convolvulus sepium var. saldanella F.Muell., Fragm. (Mueller) 9(72): 78 (1875), nom. inval. Calystegia soldanella var. australis Endl., Prodr. Fl. Norfolk. 52 (1883).
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 381 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 373 fig. 72 b (1999).
A glabrous perennial herbs with wide-spreading rhizomes; aerial stems slender, trailing or rarely twining, much branched and sometimes forming patches 1–2+ m across. Leaves: petiole 1–6 cm long, longer than lamina; lamina ± reniform, (1)2–5 cm long, 2–6 cm wide, somewhat fleshy, base cordate, margins undulate, apex rounded to emarginate. Peduncles 1.5–7.0 cm long, longer than the petioles; bracteoles 2, broad-ovate, 1.0–1.5 cm long, slightly shorter than the calyx, apex obtuse or rounded. Sepals subequal, 0.8–1.6 cm long, broad-ovate. Corolla white, pink or purplish, funnel-shaped, 3–5 cm long. Ovary surrounded at the base by a nectar-secreting disc. Capsule ovoid, 12–15 mm long, apiculate. Flowering Oct.–Feb.; fruiting Mar.
Tas. (BEL, FUR, TSE); also Qld, NSW, Vic., New Zealand. Scattered and infrequent in the east and the north-east of the state. A useful sand-binding plant due to its rhizomatous habit and matted, trailing stems. Listed as Rare under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.
2 Calystegia marginata R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 483 (1810)
Volvulus marginatus (R.Br.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 447 (1810); Convolvulus marginatus (R.Br.), Syst. Veg. [Spreng.] 1: 603 (1824).
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 382 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 373 fig. 72c (1999).
Glabrous, twining perennial herbs. Leaves: petiole 2–8 cm long, shorter than lamina; lamina ovate to lanceolate, 3–19 cm long, 1.5–8.0 cm wide, base sagittate to hastate, basal lobes toothed or shallowly lobed, margins undulate, apex acuminate. Peduncles 5–10(–25) mm long, shorter than petioles; bracteoles almost orbicular, 6–10(–12) mm long, equal to or longer than the calyx, apex rounded to emarginate, often mucronulate. Sepals 5–7 mm long. Corolla white to pale mauve, c. 2 cm long. Capsule globose, 5–7 mm long. Flowering Feb.–Mar.; fruiting Jul.
Tas. (FUR); also in Qld, NSW, Vic., New Zealand. Recorded only once from Tasmania at Cape Barren Island, growing in light scrub in a steep creek bed. The description and phenology details are based largely on interstate material.
3 Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 483 (1810), subsp. sepium
Convolvulus sepium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 153 (1753).
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. S. Austral. 3: 1136, fig. 526b (1986); Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 382 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 373 fig. 72d (1999); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an identification Guide for Australia 231 (2006).
Large, glabrous, perennial herbs with wide-spreading rhizomes; aerial stems slender, stoloniferous or climbing up to 3 m over supporting vegetation, the stems twining dextrorsely. Leaves: petiole 1.5–5.0 cm long, shorter than the blade; lamina ovate to lanceolate, 4–10 cm long, 2–8 cm wide, or occasionally larger, glabrous or nearly so, base sagittate to hastate, basal lobes entire to shallowly lobed, margins undulate, apex acute. Peduncles 3–12 cm long, longer than the petioles and sometimes longer than the leaves; bracteoles 2, ovate-cordate, 15–20(–25) mm long, overlapping only toward the base, longer than the calyx which they surround and almost conceal, base flat, or slightly keeled, apex acute. Sepals subequal, ovate-lanceolate, 10–15 mm long. Corolla white or occasionally flushed with pink, funnel-shaped, 4–6 cm long. Ovary incompletely 2-locular, surrounded at the base by a thick, 5-angled nectar-secreting disc. Capsule ovoid to subglobose, 7–8 mm long, surrounded by the persistent calyx and bracteoles. Flowering Jan.–Apr.; fruiting Feb.–May.
Tas. (FUR, TWE); also in WA, SA, NSW, Vic., New Zealand; also native in temperate Europe, Africa, America. Earlier presumed extinct in Tasmania, now known to occur locally and infrequently in some estuarine and coastal habitats in the north and west of the state. The other subspecies found in Australia is C. sepium subsp. roseata Brummitt which is found in Western Australia, South Australia and Victoria.
4 * Calystegia silvatica (Kit.) Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 74 (1843) subsp. silvatica
Convolvulus silvaticus Kit., Neues J. Bot. 1(1): 163 (1805).
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 382 (1992); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria 4: 373 fig. 72 e (1999); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an identification Guide for Australia 231 (2006).
Glabrous perennial herbs; stems robust, twining. Leaves ovate to broad-ovate, mostly 5–10 cm long, 3–10 cm wide, base cordate, basal lobes shallowly lobed, margins undulate, apex shortly acuminate-mucronate; petiole 4–8 cm long. Peduncles 8–20(–30) cm long, much longer than the petioles; bracteoles 2, broad-ovate, 2.0–3.5 cm long, overlapping for almost entire length, longer than, and enclosing calyx, base much inflated, slightly keeled, apex rounded to truncate, emarginate. Sepals 1.5–2.0 cm long. Corolla white or the outer surfaces with pinkish-lilac streaks along the mid-petaline ridges, 4–7 cm long. Capsule ovoid,10–12 mm long, enclosed by persistent calyx and bracteoles. Flowering & fruiting Nov.–May.
Tas. (FUR, TSE); also naturalised in NSW, Vic.; native in SE Europe. Common in many localities in the north and south-east of the state. A garden escape that is now a well established weed plant, widespread and often rampant in waste places, municipal tip-sites, railway embankments and agricultural land. Difficult to control due to its rhizomatous habit. Two further subspecies, C. silvatica subsp. disjuncta Brummitt and C. silvatica subsp. fraternifolia (Mack. & Bush) Brummitt occur in South Australia and Victoria.
6 * IPOMOEA
Ipomoea L., Sp. Pl. 1: 159 (1753).
Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs, with simple hairs; stems usually climbing or trailing, rarely erect (not in Tas.). Leaves petiolate; pseudo-stipules sometimes present; lamina usually simple, rarely compound (not in Tas.); glabrous or hairy, margins entire or deeply lobed. Inflorescences axillary, bracteolate; cymose or the flowers solitary. Sepals 5, free, imbricate, usually unequal. Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, slightly 5-lobed or entire, mid-petaline bands present, distinctly hairy or glabrous. Stamens 5, usually ± unequal, exserted or included; filaments hairy in the lower half or at the base. Ovary 2–4 locular, usually glabrous; ovules 2; style 1, stigma capitate or bi-globose. Fruit a capsule, ovoid to globose, usually dehiscing longitudinally into 4–6 valves, rarely indehiscent. Seeds 4–6 per capsule, glabrous or hairy.
A genus of about 500 species, from tropical to warm temperate regions of the world; about 50 species in Australia, 20 endemic, 12 naturalised.
1 Ipomoea indica (Burm. f.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Ambion. 445 (1917)
Blue Morning Glory
Convolvulus indicus Burm. f., Herb. Amboin. Auctuar. 7: 6 (1755). Ipomoea learii Paxton, Paxton’s Mag. Bot. 6: 267 (1839).
Illustrations: Johnson, Fl. New South Wales 3: 381 (1996); Jeanes, Fl. Victoria. 4: 373, fig. 72a (1999); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-east, an Identification Guide for Australia 234 (2006).
A robust perennial, younger stems pilose, older stems glabrescent; climbing and trailing extensively. Leaves: petioles 3–12 cm long; lamina broad-ovate, 5–10(–18) cm long, 3–10(–15) cm wide, base cordate, margins entire to deeply 3–lobed, the lobes broad, directed upwards, apices of lobes acute to acuminate, adaxial surface appressed antrorse-hairy, abaxial surface silky-tomentose. Inflorescences congested terminal cymes, flowers 2-many; peduncles 2–15 cm long; bracteoles narrowly-ovate, 8–20 mm long. Flowers pedicillate, the pedicels 5–15 cm long; sepals ovate, inner sepals 15–22 mm long, outer sepals 16–25 mm long. Corolla deep violet-blue to purple, mid-petaline lines paler, throat darker, ± glabrous, funnel-shaped, tube 5.0–7.5 mm long, limb 6–8 cm diam. Stamens inserted 8–10 mm above base of tube, filaments quite unequal, 10–25 mm long. Ovary 3-celled; style 25–35 mm long; stigma capitate, 3-lobed. Capsule depressed-globose, c. 10 mm diam. Flowering all year; fruit not set in Australia.
Tas. (TSE); also naturalised SA, Qld, NSW, Vic. Doubtfully naturalised but spreading vegetatively from neglected gardens and becoming rampant over fences embankments and nearby vegetation.
ALA (Atlas of Living Australia) http://www.ala.org.au/
APC (Australian Plant Census) https://biodiversity.org.au/nsl/services/apc
APNI (Australian Plant Name Index) https://biodiversity.org.au/nsl/services/apni
AVH (Australia’s Virtual Herbarium) (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria) http://avh.chah.org.au/
Curtis WM (1967) Convolvulaceae. The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3 496–501.
IPNI (International Plant Name Index) http://www.ipni.org
Jeanes JA (1996) Convolvulaceae. Flora of Victoria 3 459–461.
Johnson RW (1992) Convolvulaceae. Flora of New South Wales 3 373–384.
Johnson RW (2001) A Taxonomic revision of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 6 1–39.
NVA (Natural Values Atlas) (Department of Primary Industries and Water: Hobart) https://www.naturalvaluesatlas.tas.gov.au/
Richardson FJ, Richardson RG, Shepherd RCH (2006) Weeds of the South-East, an identification Guide for Australia. (RG & FJ Richardson: Meredith, Victoria)
NOTE: Web addresses can and do change: a list of current web addresses is maintained in the web version of this treatment on the Flora of Tasmania Online website at https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/
This work can be cited as: Gray AM (2011). Convolvulaceae, version 2019:1. In MF de Salas (Ed.) Flora of Tasmania Online. 11 pp. (Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery: Hobart). https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/vascular-families/convolvulaceae/ (accessed ). ↩︎
Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery, PO Box 5058, UTAS LPO, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005, Australia. ↩︎